Gross National Happiness (GNH) is a unique development philosophy promulgated by the fourth king of Bhutan. GNH emphasizes the pursuit and achievement of happiness – a fundamental human desire - as the end of socio-economic development. In other words, GNH places happiness as the primary goal of development.
Understanding that material growth alone necessarily does not translate into happiness, the GNH approach to development aspires to balance the spiritual and emotional well-being with material needs of individuals and the society at large. GNH recognizes the importance of economic growth as essential, but not an end in itself, to support and nurture the spiritual and social needs of the community. GNH is the overarching philosophy that guides government policies and development activities in Bhutan.
GNH has four main pillars - sustainable and equitable socio-economic development, conservation of environment, preservation and promotion of culture and promotion of good governance.